Tag Archives: Artistic movements

Workshop of the Jacob Family of Ébénistes

A famous family of French ébénistes who worked in Paris in 1765-1847. The founder of the company was George Jacob, and his successors were his sons: Georges the Second, dealing exclusively with the administration of the company, and François Honoré Jacob-Desmalter. Then the Jacob House was developed by the founder’s grandson, Georges-Alphonse Jacob Desmalter, who in 1847 sold the company to an outstanding carpenter J. Jeanselmow. During this time, the Jacob House developed into a large enterprise, especially under Napoleon. In 1808, it employed 332 workers.

Napoleon’s Jewel-Cabinet, 1809 (Musée du Louvre). Early 19th-century drawing of mahogany cabinet given by Napoleon I to Marie Louise as a wedding present in 1810. Uploaded by Bishonen (2007). {{PD-Art}}. Public domain. Photo source: “François-Honoré-Georges Jacob-Desmalter” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.

Mostly expensive furniture was made by the Jacob for the needs of European courts, thanks to which it had a real impact on the development of European furniture. The furniture, manufactured for 82 years, bore the stylish features fashionable in France from the reign of Louis XV to Louis Philippe, with a predominance of the Neo-classicist trends. Having personal ties with renowned artists, the Jacob made furniture according to their drawings, for example, furniture designed by Hubert Robert, in style à la grecque, according to the designs of Napoleon’s first painter, Jacques-Louis David, including the chaise longue depicted in his painting, The Loves of Paris and Helen, and above all according to the designs of Charles Percier and Pierre François Léonard Fontaine, founders of the directorate and of the Empire. There were also references to the creators of English furniture.

The Jacob furnished residences in Fontainebleau, Compiègne, Malmaison and Saint Cloud, among others, during the restoration of the interior of the Elysée Palace. Initially, the company’s specialty was to make furniture for sitting and sleeping, i.e. chairs, armchairs, sofas, banquets, beds, chaise lounges or recamier – a usually backless couch having curved arms often of unequal height. Later, chests of drawers, secretaries, tables, desks and others were also manufactured. The furniture was characterized by harmonious, symmetrical arrangements, straight or smoothly rounded lines, an extremely functional solution and solid workmanship. The Jacob were the first to introduce mahogany in France, which was associated with English influences. They also used the wood of citrus, birch, acacia, oak, pear, boxwood, yew and others, as well as ebony and amaranth inlays, painting, gilding and carving, sometimes discreet bronzes and porcelain plaques.

The Jacob furniture was also massively counterfeited.

Featured image: The Love of Helen and Paris (detail). Painting by Jacques-Louis David (1748 –1825). Uploaded by Livioandronico (2013). Public domain. Image cropped and enlarged. Photo source: “The Loves of Paris and Helen” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

“The Loves of Paris and Helen” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/3pUxqQr>. [Accessed 26th February, 2021].

“François-Honoré-Georges Jacob-Desmalter” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/3dPljSo>. [Accessed 26th February, 2021].

PWN (1997-2021). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 164. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN

Habanic Ceramics Made by Those ‘Who Baptize again’.

Tin-glazed faience vessels, often decorated with colorful painting decorations, occurring in the greatest number in Moravia, Slovakia, but also in Switzerland, Tirol and Transylvania, roughly from the mid-sixteenth century to the beginning of the eighteenth century. The vessels and utensils were made by wandering craftsmen of the Anabaptist sect who were harshly persecuted and usually driven out of the countries because of their radical religious beliefs.

Modra ceramics. Photo by Zuzana Tomčalová (2012). CC BY-SA 3.0. Colours intensified. Photo source: “Ceramika z Modrej” (2020) In: Wikipedia. Wolna Encyklopedia.

“Anabaptism […] is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation. […] The movement is seen by outsiders as another offshoot of Protestantism, although this view is not shared by Anabaptists, who view themselves as a separate branch of Christianity. […] The name Anabaptist means ‘one who baptizes again’, [which refers to their beliefs] that baptism is valid only when candidates freely confess their faith in Christ and request to be baptized. This believer’s baptism is opposed to baptism of infants, who are not able to make a conscious decision to be baptized” (“Anababtism” 2021).

The Habanic pottery made by Anabaptists was usually spherical and melon-shaped but polygonal apothecary bottles, plates and platters were also manufactured. In the painting decoration, cobalt or colorful floral motifs were applied. Such an ornamentation seem to be a folk version of plant painting decorations used on Italian Majolica.

Featured image: Pottery from a small factory in Modra, Slovakia. In the seventeeth century, the first potters’ guilds began to appear in Modra (the first one was established in 1636). Among them, there were potters from the Anabaptist sects who came from Switzerland, and who made the so-called Habanic ceramics. Photo by Limojoe (2013). CC BY-SA 3.0. Colours intensified. Photo source: “Ceramika z Modrej” (2020) In: Wikipedia. Wolna Encyklopedia.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

“Anababtism” (2021) In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/2N5baFX>. [Accessed on 9th February, 2021].

“Ceramika z Modrej” (2020) In: Wikipedia. Wolna Encyklopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/3rCRvMs>. [Accessed on 9th February, 2021].

PWN (2007). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 145. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Dadaism – an International Movement for Radical Artistic Revolt

The movement was initiated in 1915 by European and American artists and writers. In 1916, during the First World War, an international artistic group was formed in Zurich (Switzerland), including Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, Hugo Ball, Richard Huelsenbeck, Hans Arp and others. Cabaret Voltaire became the group’s first headquarters. It was there that the word ‘dada’ was coined for the first time, which was later adopted to denote the entire movement.

Dadaism was a spontaneous protest against the reality: against bloody war, hypocrisy of bourgeois systems, an empty phraseology and a commercialization of art. Its main feature was an anti-racialist and anti-aesthetic attitude and a strong negation of the existing forms of social life and culture resulting from the feeling of the collapse of civilization. In the fight against this cruel world, the Dadaists put forward slogans of an anarchy, a total negation and a drastic mockery. In their actions, an extreme individualism, unbridled fantasy and ingenuity emerged. The hoax, an arranged ‘accident’, provocations and the desire to cause a scandal were to directly affect the viewer and to force them to act.

Grand opening of the first Dada exhibition: International Dada Fair, Berlin, 5 June 1920. The central figure hanging from the ceiling was an effigy of a German officer with a pig’s head. From left to right: Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch (sitting), Otto Burchard, Johannes Baader, Wieland Herzfelde, Margarete Herzfelde, Dr. Oz (Otto Schmalhausen), George Grosz and John Heartfield. Anonymous author (1920). Public domain. Photo and caption source: “Dada” (2021). Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.

The Swiss group of Dadaists developed a lively and multidirectional activity. From 1917, art exhibitions, lectures and Dada evenings were organized. In 1917, two issues of the Dada periodical were also published, and in 1919, Der Zeltweg was printed. In 1918, Francis Picabia came to Europe; he largely contributed to the bonding of individual Dadaist groups. In Berlin, where some symptoms of Dadaism appeared as early as in 1916, the Dadaists were directly involved in political struggle, which was favoured by the atmosphere of the revolution. The Dada club was established there, together with many ephemeral magazines and other publications, such as Der blutige Ernst, Hedermann sein eigner Fussball. Additionally, the Almanach Dada (1920) was published and exhibitions were organized, among which there was the First International Dada Fair (1920). Johannes Baader, Richard Huelsenbeck, Jhon Heartfield, George Grosz, Hannah Höch, Raoul Hausmann, Hand Richter and Rudolf Schlichter were active there.

Kurt Schwitters, the founder of Merz-paintings, developed a very individual variety of Dadaism in Hanover. Another important center of German Dadaism was Cologne, which was then occupied by the French. This was the field of activity of Max Ernst, Hans Arp and Johannes Theodor Baargeld. The journals Der Ventilator and Die Schammade were published there. An exhibition at Winter’s beer hall (1920) ended in a scandal and was finally closed by the police. In 1922 Max Ernst left for Paris and the group of the Dadaists ceased to exist. Consequently, most of the old ‘dada’ members joined the Surrealist movement, whose main center was established in Paris.

Feature image: Dada artists, group photograph, 1920, Paris. From left to right, Back row: Louis Aragon, Theodore Fraenkel, Paul Eluard, Clément Pansaers, Emmanuel Fay (cut off). Second row: Paul Dermée, Philippe Soupault, Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes. Front row: Tristan Tzara (with monocle), Celine Arnauld, Francis Picabia, André Breton. hAnonymous authot (1920). Anonymous – Museum of New Zealand (Te Papa Tongarewa). Public domain. Photo and caption source: “Dada” (2021). Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

“Dadaizm” (2020). In: Wikipedia. Wolna Encyklopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/3ultzzk>. [Accessed 22nd February, 2021].

“Dada” (2021). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/2NSzqeH>. [Accessed 22nd February, 2021].

Barucki T. et al. (2009). “Dadaism”. In: Sztuka świata. Leksykon A-K, tom 12. [Historia del Arte, vol. 12], p. 175. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Arkady.

PWN (2007). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 82. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.