In ancient Greek literature, an idol means aneidolon plural: eidola or eidolons. Accordingly, it is an image, apparition, phantom, ghost. It stands either for a spirit-image of a living or dead person or a shade or phantom lookalike a human being. In art, idols are cult figurines with simplified or geometric shapes, mainly female representations made, among others, of wood, clay, ivory, marble or bronze. They appear across the ancient world, mostly from the Paleolithic to Late Antiquity. Nevertheless, the term ‘idols’ is usually applied in relation to the Cycladic culture (ca. 3200–ca. 1050 BC.).
Tin-glazed faience vessels, often decorated with colorful painting decorations, occurring in the greatest number in Moravia, Slovakia, but also in Switzerland, Tirol and Transylvania, roughly from the mid-sixteenth century to the beginning of the eighteenth century. The vessels and utensils were made by wandering craftsmen of the Anabaptist sect who were harshly persecuted and usually driven out of the countries because of their radical religious beliefs.
“Anabaptism […] is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation. […] The movement is seen by outsiders as another offshoot of Protestantism, although this view is not shared by Anabaptists, who view themselves as a separate branch of Christianity. […] The name Anabaptist means ‘one who baptizes again’, [which refers to their beliefs] that baptism is valid only when candidates freely confess their faith in Christ and request to be baptized. This believer’s baptism is opposed to baptism of infants, who are not able to make a conscious decision to be baptized” (“Anababtism” 2021).
The Habanic pottery made by Anabaptists was usually spherical and melon-shaped but polygonal apothecary bottles, plates and platters were also manufactured. In the painting decoration, cobalt or colorful floral motifs were applied. Such an ornamentation seem to be a folk version of plant painting decorations used on Italian Majolica.
Featured image: Pottery from a small factory in Modra, Slovakia. In the seventeeth century, the first potters’ guilds began to appear in Modra (the first one was established in 1636). Among them, there were potters from the Anabaptist sects who came from Switzerland, and who made the so-called Habanic ceramics. Photo by Limojoe (2013). CC BY-SA 3.0. Colours intensified. Photo source: “Ceramika z Modrej” (2020) In: Wikipedia. Wolna Encyklopedia.
“Anababtism” (2021) In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/2N5baFX>. [Accessed on 9th February, 2021].
“Ceramika z Modrej” (2020) In: Wikipedia. Wolna Encyklopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/3rCRvMs>. [Accessed on 9th February, 2021].
PWN (2007). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 145. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
The movement was initiated in 1915 by European and American artists and writers. In 1916, during the First World War, an international artistic group was formed in Zurich (Switzerland), including Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, Hugo Ball, Richard Huelsenbeck, Hans Arp and others. Cabaret Voltaire became the group’s first headquarters. It was there that the word ‘dada’ was coined for the first time, which was later adopted to denote the entire movement.
Dadaism was a spontaneous protest against the reality: against bloody war, hypocrisy of bourgeois systems, an empty phraseology and a commercialization of art. Its main feature was an anti-racialist and anti-aesthetic attitude and a strong negation of the existing forms of social life and culture resulting from the feeling of the collapse of civilization. In the fight against this cruel world, the Dadaists put forward slogans of an anarchy, a total negation and a drastic mockery. In their actions, an extreme individualism, unbridled fantasy and ingenuity emerged. The hoax, an arranged ‘accident’, provocations and the desire to cause a scandal were to directly affect the viewer and to force them to act.
The Swiss group of Dadaists developed a lively and multidirectional activity. From 1917, art exhibitions, lectures and Dada evenings were organized. In 1917, two issues of the Dada periodical were also published, and in 1919, Der Zeltweg was printed. In 1918, Francis Picabia came to Europe; he largely contributed to the bonding of individual Dadaist groups. In Berlin, where some symptoms of Dadaism appeared as early as in 1916, the Dadaists were directly involved in political struggle, which was favoured by the atmosphere of the revolution. The Dada club was established there, together with many ephemeral magazines and other publications, such as Der blutige Ernst, Hedermann sein eigner Fussball. Additionally, the Almanach Dada (1920) was published and exhibitions were organized, among which there was the First International Dada Fair (1920). Johannes Baader, Richard Huelsenbeck, Jhon Heartfield, George Grosz, Hannah Höch, Raoul Hausmann, Hand Richter and Rudolf Schlichter were active there.
Kurt Schwitters, the founder of Merz-paintings, developed a very individual variety of Dadaism in Hanover. Another important center of German Dadaism was Cologne, which was then occupied by the French. This was the field of activity of Max Ernst, Hans Arp and Johannes Theodor Baargeld. The journals Der Ventilator and Die Schammade were published there. An exhibition at Winter’s beer hall (1920) ended in a scandal and was finally closed by the police. In 1922 Max Ernst left for Paris and the group of the Dadaists ceased to exist. Consequently, most of the old ‘dada’ members joined the Surrealist movement, whose main center was established in Paris.
Feature image: Dada artists, group photograph, 1920, Paris. From left to right, Back row: Louis Aragon, Theodore Fraenkel, Paul Eluard, Clément Pansaers, Emmanuel Fay (cut off). Second row: Paul Dermée, Philippe Soupault, Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes. Front row: Tristan Tzara (with monocle), Celine Arnauld, Francis Picabia, André Breton. hAnonymous authot (1920). Anonymous – Museum of New Zealand (Te Papa Tongarewa). Public domain. Photo and caption source: “Dada” (2021). Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.
“Dadaizm” (2020). In: Wikipedia. Wolna Encyklopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/3ultzzk>. [Accessed 22nd February, 2021].
“Dada” (2021). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/2NSzqeH>. [Accessed 22nd February, 2021].
Barucki T. et al. (2009). “Dadaism”. In: Sztuka świata. Leksykon A-K, tom 12. [Historia del Arte, vol. 12], p. 175. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Arkady.
PWN (2007). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 82. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
From Latin ‘cross-bearing orb’ or ‘the orb and cross” is an orb (globus) surmounted by a cross. Together with a sceptre, the globe-shaped insignia with the cross on top constitute royal regalia; “[the cross represents Christ’s dominion over the orb of the world, literally held in the hand of an earthly ruler” (“Globus cruciger” 2021).
As a matter of fact, the globe as the insignia first appears in ancient Rome on the coins of Augustus the Second (first century AD.), where the top of the globe was crowned with a statue of the goddess of victory, Nike. From Rome, the custom of using the ‘globus’ spread to Byzantium, and then it was adopted in all royal monarchies of Europe. In Christianity, the goddess of victory was gradually replaced with a cross, usually the Greek one with equal arms. Nevertheless, the pagan symbol is still present after the Edict of Milan in 313. In Poland, the royal apple was probably known from the beginning of the thirteenth century.
It has been a Christian symbol of authority since the Middle Ages, used on coins and in Christian iconography as a symbol of royal power; it is held in the left hand of Jesus Christ the King or Mary the Queen of Heaven. One of the most famous images of Christ as the King of the World wielding the royal apple was painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance; it is widely known as Salvator Mundi (circa 1500) and depicts the royal apple as the ‘celestial sphere’ of the heavens.
In medieval and modern documents, and sometimes in professional literature, the term specifying the process of construction, reconstruction or renovation, together with all the equipment needed for it, such as material stocks, staff of employees (architects, craftsmen, helpers, administration), along with the organizational and financial side of the whole project.
There are different types of this type of the process, depending on the type of building being erected. There are thus fabrica ecclesiae (the process of building a church), fabricca palatii (the process of building a palace).
From French: ébéniste; from Greek: ébenos ‘heban’.
A cabinet-maker, particularly one who works in ebony, a favoured luxury wood, mainly for Parisian cabinets; he is also considered as a carpenter-artist, making veneered, inlaid and inlay furniture. In the sixteenth century in France, a craftsman making ebony inlays on furniture. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a carpenter – artist, unlike a a woodcarver, called in French a menuisier, who makes free-standing furniture.
A type of Indian temple, mainly Buddhist, in the form of an elongated rectangular hall, divided by rows of pillars (Bhaja) or columns (Ajanta) into the main nave with a semi-circular apse, where the reliquary in the form of a stupa rises; it replaces the altar typical of the time of Ashoka (Aśoka) (circa 268 – 232 BC.). Two lower (side) aisles are composed of standing in one row pillars, primarily carved without capitals or bases (Bhaja), creating a circuit (ambit) around the stupa in the apse. The pillars/columns equally play a constructional function by supporting the mass of the barrel vault of the carved temple, which is decorated with ribs of arched timber beams.
Structures of this type are very monumental and decoratively sculpted and painted. The same model was repeated in a free standing temples of rectangular layout. In the rock-cut temples, the highly elaborated stonework is also visible in its façade, which creates a massive entrance; it opens to the outside of the rock with a horseshoe-shaped opening, also forming a kind of eaves. The stone facade happens to be richly sculpted and always closely imitates wooden elements of contemporary buildings both, inside and outside the temple; at the entrance there is a porch with a large ogee window, known as kudu or gavaksha, and a gallery comprised of balustrades forming balconies and blind lucarnes (dormer windows) with lattice railings.
According to Percy Brown, the prototype of Chaitya is to be found in sanctuaries belonging to the Ajivika sect associated with Jainism and Vaishnavism. Chaitya temples were carved in rock or built as free-standing constructions of stone, brick or wood. The wooden chaityas are known only from excavations, due to the perishable material. However, rock-cut temples with some wooden elements, which had been created since the third century BC., can be still found in Karla, Ajanta, Bhaja and Ellora caves. Yet, the actual date of the appearance of such temples is debatable and some scholars move it forwards in time to the first century BC. Since the first century AD. this type of temples had still developed, gradually enriching itself with new elements and ornaments, the evolution of which had continued until about the sixth century AD.
Featured image: Timber ribs on the roof at the Karla Caves; the umbrella over the stupa is also made of wood. Photo by Vatsalbhawsinka (2017). CC BY-SA 4.0. Colours intensified. Photo source: “Chaitya” (2018). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.
“Chaitya” (2018). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/3oC2R1k>. [Accessed 30th January, 2021].
Auboyer J. (1975) Sztuka Indii [Les arts de l’Indes et des paysindianisés], pp. 56-57. Krzywicki J. trans. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe.
PWN (2007). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 80. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
A type of fly, quick and light one-horse drawn carriage. It features a closed square box in a square frame with two wheels as high as the vehicle. Inside the cab, there was enough space for two, up to three passengers (if squeezed).
They were protected by a high hood separating them from the driver operating the vehicle from a high sprung seat behind the body. The passengers could communicate with the driver through a trap door near the rear of the roof. The cab could be either open or closed; except from the hood, the passengers were additionally protected from the elements by folding wooden doors that enclosed their feet and legs, protecting their clothes from splashing mud.
The cab was introduced in England in the 1830s and was used as a carriage until the beginning of the twentieth century. It was designed and patented by Joseph Hansom, an architect from York. Hence the carriage was originally called hansom-cab.
In the Muslim architecture of the Middle East, Maghreb and Spain, the outer monumental gateway in the walls surrounding the cities, residential houses and some public buildings. It is made of stone and fortified, normally flanked by two towers with battlements. Yet its central entrance is intricately decorated with various types of rich and multicoloured ornaments and calligraphy. The main structural element of such a gate is a horseshoe arch, also called the Moorish arch and the keyhole arch. It can take either rounded or, more often, pointed form. Less common in similar gates are Moorish arches with the so-called lobed form.
Most outstanding examples of such gateways can be found, for example, in the south of Spain (Andalucia), such as Antigua Lateral Gateway to the Great Mosque of Cordoba, and in royal cities of Morocco (see: Within the Walls of Imperial Cities). Such fortified gates were also incorporated into the ancient walls of Jerusalem, and referred to as the ‘bab’ after the Arab’s invasion in the seventh century, which is accurately recorded in the mosaic map of Jerusalem in Madaba church, in modern-day Jordan (see: The Holy Land Translated into a Mosaic).
In plural: abacuses or abaci; from Latin: abacus; from Greek: ábaks.
A square plate constituting the uppermost part of the capital (head) of a column. In the Doric order, the abacus together with the echinus form the actual capital; in Ionic and Corinthian orders, it is a thin profiled and decorated plate; in Ionic and Composite orders, the sides of the abacus are recessed and decorated with a rosette. In the arcade system, in late antique and medieval art, the abacus often turned into impost.
Featured image: Doric capital of the Parthenon from Athens with a squared plate of abacus. Photo by Codex (2012). CC BY-SA 3.0. Photo source: “Classical order” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.
“Abacus (architecture)” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/3c4f9gk>. [Accessed 22nd January, 2021].
“Classical order” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/364embC>. [Accessed 22nd January, 2021].
Koch W. (2009) Style w architekturze. Arcydzieła budownictwa europejskiego od antyku po czasy współczesne. [Baustilkunde], pp. 16, 424. Baraniewski W., Kunkel R., Omilanowska M., Sito J., Zięba A., Żak K. trans. Warszawa: Świat Książki.
PWN (2007). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 1. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.