Category Archives: DICTIONARY

Cab – a Shortening of Cabriolet in the Nineteenth Century

A type of fly, quick and light one-horse drawn carriage. It features a closed square box in a square frame with two wheels as high as the vehicle. Inside the cab, there was enough space for two, up to three passengers (if squeezed).

A hansom cab, London, 1877. Photo from 1877: John Thomson (1837-1921) – London Cabmen Uploaded by Fæ. Public domain. Photo source:“Hansom cab” (2020). In Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.

They were protected by a high hood separating them from the driver operating the vehicle from a high sprung seat behind the body. The passengers could communicate with the driver through a trap door near the rear of the roof. The cab could be either open or closed; except from the hood, the passengers were additionally protected from the elements by folding wooden doors that enclosed their feet and legs, protecting their clothes from splashing mud.

The cab was introduced in England in the 1830s and was used as a carriage until the beginning of the twentieth century. It was designed and patented by Joseph Hansom, an architect from York. Hence the carriage was originally called hansom-cab.

Hansom cab and driver in a movie set in 1903 London. Photo by Andrew Dunn (2004). CC BY-SA 2.0. Photo source: “Hansom cab” (2020). In Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.

Featured image: Specification drawings for Hansom’s patent cab 1834. It was for one passenger protected by a high hood which separated them from the driver at his side and had a square body in a square frame with wheels as high as the vehicle. Internet Archive Book Images: “Social England : a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day Year: 1901 (1900s)”. Authors: Traill, H. D. (Henry Duff), 1842-1900 Mann, James Saumarez, Publisher: New York: Putnam Contributing Library: University of California Libraries. No restrictions. Image cropped. Drawing source: “Hansom cab” (2020). In Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

“Hansom cab” (2020). In Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/39zZfZH>. [Accessed 30th January, 2021].

PWN (2007). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 57. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Bab – a Gateway to the Wealth of Cities

In the Muslim architecture of the Middle East, Maghreb and Spain, the outer monumental gateway in the walls surrounding the cities, residential houses and some public buildings. It is made of stone and fortified, normally flanked by two towers with battlements. Yet its central entrance is intricately decorated with various types of rich and multicoloured ornaments and calligraphy. The main structural element of such a gate is a horseshoe arch, also called the Moorish arch and the keyhole arch. It can take either rounded or, more often, pointed form. Less common in similar gates are Moorish arches with the so-called lobed form.

Bab Lakhmis is the impressive gateway erected in the seventeenth century. It was used as the western entrance to the city of Meknes, Morocco. Copyright©Archaeotravel.

Most outstanding examples of such gateways can be found, for example, in the south of Spain (Andalucia), such as Antigua Lateral Gateway to the Great Mosque of Cordoba, and in royal cities of Morocco (see: Within the Walls of Imperial Cities). Such fortified gates were also incorporated into the ancient walls of Jerusalem, and referred to as the ‘bab’ after the Arab’s invasion in the seventh century, which is accurately recorded in the mosaic map of Jerusalem in Madaba church, in modern-day Jordan (see: The Holy Land Translated into a Mosaic).

Featured Image: The Bab Abi al-Jounoud or Bab Bou Jeloud is an ornate city gate in the old city of Fez, Morocco. Copyright©Archaeotravel.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

“Horseshoe arch” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/2Yk8V43>. [Accessed 28th January, 2021].

PWN (2007). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 29. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Abacus – a Square Head of a Column

Parts of the column. Mooney S. (2006). “Abacus in Architecture”. In World Book Encyclopedia ©2002 by Woodward S. Photo by Edwardtbabinski (2006). CC BY 2.5. Image cropped. Drawing source: “Abacus (architecture)” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.

In plural: abacuses or abaci; from Latin: abacus; from Greek: ábaks.

A square plate constituting the uppermost part of the capital (head) of a column. In the Doric order, the abacus together with the echinus form the actual capital; in Ionic and Corinthian orders, it is a thin profiled and decorated plate; in Ionic and Composite orders, the sides of the abacus are recessed and decorated with a rosette. In the arcade system, in late antique and medieval art, the abacus often turned into impost.

Featured image: Doric capital of the Parthenon from Athens with a squared plate of abacus. Photo by Codex (2012). CC BY-SA 3.0. Photo source: “Classical order” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

“Abacus (architecture)” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/3c4f9gk>. [Accessed 22nd January, 2021].

“Classical order” (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <https://bit.ly/364embC>. [Accessed 22nd January, 2021].

Koch W. (2009) Style w architekturze. Arcydzieła budownictwa europejskiego od antyku po czasy współczesne. [Baustilkunde], pp. 16, 424. Baraniewski W., Kunkel R., Omilanowska M., Sito J., Zięba A., Żak K. trans. Warszawa: Świat Książki.

PWN (2007). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 1. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.