Small figurines of clay, stone, wood, bronze or earthenware in the shape of mummies, often holding agricultural implements. They were placed in the graves in ancient Egypt, with the beginning of the Middle Kingdom (circa 2055-1795 BC.). They were to replace the deceased, who were called to work in the Afterlife. The ushabti were animated in a magical way, by the religious texts from the Sixth Chapter of the Book of the Dead, which covered the surface of the figurines (see: The Spell of Ushabtis: ‘Verily, I Am Here’).
Featured image: Memphis, 500 BC – Troop of funerary servant figures ushabtis in the name of Neferibreheb, Louvre-Lens. Photo by Serge Ottaviani (2013). CC BY-SA 3.0. Colours intensified. Photo source: “Ushabti“ (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia.
“Ushabti“ (2020). In: Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at <http://bit.ly/3bt54Js>. [Accessed on 23rd February, 2021].
PWN (2007). Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, p. 427. Kubalska-Sulkiewicz K., Bielska-Łach M., Manteuffel-Szarota A. eds. Wydanie piąte. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.